Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color.

In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far as the Oort cloud. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice. It is abundant on Earth's surface  particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line  and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth's water cycle and climate. It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or ice spikes.

Ice molecules can exhibit up to sixteen different phases (packing geometries) that depend on temperature and pressure. When water is cooled rapidly (quenching), up to three different types of amorphous ice can form depending on the history of its pressure and temperature. When cooled slowly correlated proton tunneling occurs below 20 K giving rise to macroscopic quantum phenomena. Virtually all the ice on Earth's surface and in its atmosphere is of a hexagonal crystalline structure denoted as ice Ih (spoken as "ice one h") with minute traces of cubic ice denoted as ice Ic. The most common phase transition to ice Ih occurs when liquid water is cooled below 0°C (273.15K, 32°F) at standard atmospheric pressure. It may also be deposited directly by water vapor, as happens in the formation of frost. The transition from ice to water is melting and from ice directly to water vapor is sublimation.

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Latest News for: Water discovery


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BBC News 12 Jun 2024
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Sandhills Express 12 Jun 2024
His granddaughter, Alexandra Shackleton, was a patron of the expedition and said that finding the shipwreck during such a memorable anniversary has made its discovery all the more meaningful ... “It is perhaps fitting that the ship should have ended its storied service in Canadian waters....

Water frost detected on Mars volcanoes in ‘unexpected’ first

CNN 11 Jun 2024
We also confirmed that it’s ice and likely water,” said Adomas Valantinas, a postdoctoral researcher at Brown University who made the ... The volcanoes are near the Mars equator, the warmest area of the planet, which makes a water discovery particularly intriguing, Valantinas said....

Frost Seen on Olympus Mons for the First Time

Universe Today 11 Jun 2024
The polar caps of Mars have been the subject of many studies in particular, since the discovery of water ice in 2008 ... The discovery means we need to model how the frost forms to get a real understanding of where water might exist on Mars, how it moves and how it interacts with the atmosphere....

Frost discovered on top of giant Mars volcanoes

The Manila Times 11 Jun 2024
PARISEarly morning frost has been detected on the peaks of massive volcanoes on Mars, an unexpected discovery about the dispersal of water on Mars that could one day prove essential for human exploration, scientists said ... The discovery came by chance — no one expected to find frost in this region....

Morning frost spotted on Mars where it was thought impossible to exist

The Independent 11 Jun 2024
\nThe “astonishing” discovery confirms that ice is not only confined to the red planet’s poles, ......

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Splash24/7 11 Jun 2024
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The Lewiston Tribune 11 Jun 2024
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Fox31 Denver 11 Jun 2024
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The Stroller, June 11, 2024: Events in the Alle-Kiski Valley

Pittsburgh Tribune Review 11 Jun 2024
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The Daily Mail 11 Jun 2024
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Morning frost detected on volcanoes near Mars’s equator

AOL 10 Jun 2024
The “astonishing” discovery confirms that ice is not only confined to the red planet’s poles, and indicates that water ice is far more abundant across the planet than previously realised ... “It indicates that water ice had been, and still is, far more abundant across the planet than previously realised....